"Shirley had unwittingly fallen into the "Competency Trap". She was so good at what she did that she had built her business to become dependent on her presence and direct participation to solve these same challenges, day after day, month after month.
> Xerox is the poster child for monopoly technology businesses that cannot make the transition to a new generation of technology
> How Xerox fell so far is a case study in what management experts call the “competency trap” — an organization becomes so good at one thing, it can’t learn to do anything new.
"All organizations are merely conceptual embodiments of a very old, very basic idea -- the idea of community. They can be no more or less than the sum of the beliefs of the people drawn to them; of their character, judgments, acts, and efforts," Hock says. "An organization's success has enormously more to do with clarity of a shared purpose, common principles and strength of belief in them than to assets, expertise, operating ability, or management competence, important as they may be."