I cannot believe how hard it is to submit a podcast to Apple now. To submit a podcast, you need to sign in to Podcasts Connect with your Apple ID.
To get an Apple ID you need to verify an email address and phone number.
To "activate" your Apple ID you need to add a payment method and accept the Apple Media Terms and Conditions.
To accept the Apple Media Terms and Conditions, you need to log in with your Apple ID to an actual iOS or MacOS device.